Category Archives: Wisdom

“Your body language shapes who you are”, TED Talk Comment: Power vs. Humility Postures

Harvard Business School Sociologist Amy Cuddy’s TED Talk has been viewed over 9 million times

She speaks about how “Body language affects how others see us, but it may also change how we see ourselves.”  and how ” ‘power posing’ — standing in a posture of confidence, even when we don’t feel confident — can affect testosterone and cortisol levels in the brain”.   She specifically addresses how various forms of ‘power posing’ affect ourselves, not how they may affect others, as the latter may have both positive and negative consequences, depending on the circumstances.

“I don’t sing because I’m happy; I’m happy because I sing”.   — Wiliam James.

Pastor Randy Willis asks: “how this fits with religions/cultures that emphasize postures of humility such as bowing, kneeling, laying prostrate, etc.”   (Cuddy responds that she is VERY interested in this question)

My comment in the TED discussion, in response to Willis’s question:
In my 2006 AIAA presentation on a “Value Proposition for Space Programs” (discussing how to get people to commit to a multi-generational Space Program, a vision and a cause greater than their individual self-interests) I suggested considering “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in which the lower ‘deficiency needs’ are complemented by the higher ‘growth needs’. Maslow’s later Hierarchy included the need to know, understand, and transcend one’s individual needs through connecting to something beyond oneself.” Maslow believed that “Self-actualization preceded self-transcendence”, hence the very top of his later pyramid is “Transcendence”.

Perhaps the lower 7 ‘needs’ require more pride, confidence, and power (hence the corresponding body language), whereas the top level, the “need to connect to something beyond oneself”, to transcend oneself, requires humility and the wisdom to merge one’s identity into a “higher power”. The body language of humility helps to affirm, especially to oneself, that connection and release of the ego.

I like to say “there’s a yin and yang of everything”. Perhaps humility is part of the yin that is actually more powerful than the ‘yang’ power required for the lower 7 levels of the pyramid. Lao Tzu describes this eloquently in the Tao Teh Ching, e.g. “Nothing in the world is softer and weaker than water, yet for attacking the hard and strong, nothing can be better”.

In a way, bodily expressions of humility may, in some circumstances, be much more “meaningful” (hence empowering?) than bodily expressions of power.

My tweet a few days ago:  Why it shapes you?  Maybe our Unconscious is being programmed, by ourselves, in two ways.

1) our Conscious Decision to assume a ‘power pose’ is both a result of an unconscious intention which then “feeds back” a message to our unconscious that we, also consciously, have chosen to be more powerful, and

2) our body language sends a (positive feedback) message to both our conscious mind and unconscious  that we are in fact more powerful.

This may imply that the programming of our unconscious by our conscious decision to be more powerful may be sufficient to make us feel, and be, more powerful, even whithout changing our body language.

Going one step further Dumi Pyo asks Cuddy: Can only ‘imagining’ powerful body language change ourselves, too?

Cuddy answers:  “we’re running that study right now. There is good reason to hypothesize that simply imagining oneself in a power pose may produce similar effects”

Here’s my “anecdotal evidence” in support of that hypothesis, just one data point for that study:    When I was first learning to teach, to make speeches, and give presentations at conferences, in order to overcome the fear of public speaking,  I taught myself to imagine I was “leaning into it”, to address the audience.  It feels like a rotation of a facet of my mind (as well as my body) to bring forward what I call my “public speaking persona”.   It subjectively feels very kinesthetic, including a feeling that my face as well as my body are involved in projecting power and mastery.  It definitely works.  It’s very effective in changing my state of consciousness, and reducing my nervousness.  A cousin of mine who’s a psychiatrist told me it sounds like I’m describing self-hypnosis.


  • TED talk by Amy Cuddy:  “Your body language shapes who you are”,
  • “Rediscovering the Later Version of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Self-Transcendence and Opportunities for Theory, Research, and Unification”
    by Mark E. Koltko-Rivera Review of General Psychology 2006, Vol. 10, No. 4, 302–317

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Why Was Socrates So Wise? (and in what way was he wise?)

Would Socrates have been so wise if he were born rich and handsome, and if he’d had a happy Socratesmarriage?   I think not.

One day, one of Socrates’ students came to him asking, “a friend is thinking of getting married, would you advise him to marry or not?”  Socrates replied, “by all means he should marry.  If she’s a good wife he’ll be very happy, if she’s a bad wife, he’ll become a philosopher.”   Socrates was well known to have a shrewish wife.   The story tells us quite a bit about Socrates, himself.   Taken at face value, it clearly indicates that his marriage problems stimulated his efforts to elevate his mind above personal circumstances.   Although he probably inherited his very strong constitution from his parents, he may have developed his extremely strong mind through coping with his domestic life.   In any case we can speculate that, in some sense, his students constituted his family.

“Adversity makes men, prosperity makes monsters”  — Victor Hugo

Socrates’ trade was stone-cutting.  From Xenophon’s and others’ reports, we know that he was physically very strong and stoic, along with his strong constitution.  In addition there likely wouldn’t have been an expectation that he’d become rich, famous, or a leading politician of Athens.  Hence he was free to think his own thoughts, make his own path, and not be embarrassed by his lack of wealth or other forms of worldly success.  There were little or no constraints on his life-choices.  Furthermore, he had no need for others to agree with his ideas.

Socrates’ value system included friendship as one of the greatest ‘possessions’.  Freedom and independence must have also been high on his list.  One surmises from his refusal to accept payment for his teachings that the very act of discourse was highly satisfying to him.  He may well have been extremely verbal and extroverted.

I think that the following story, demonstrating Socrates’ strength of mind is particularly interesting and inspiring.  A contemporary observed that following a military defeat of the Athenians, as the soldiers retreated back to Athens, almost everyone appeared very dejected and depressed, as one might expect.  But not Socrates;  Socrates walked upright, with a strong bearing that gave no indication of defeat.  (I’ve sometimes said: “Don’t be so weak minded that your attitude is completely determined by your circumstances”)   His self-discipline was clearly not limited to his physical behavior, but extended to all aspects of his mind.  Socrates never stopped acting as a mentor and role model for those around him.

Socrates observed that food, sex, wealth, and other apparently pleasurable and valuable things can make a prisoner of the person who enjoyed them.  In fact, he noted that they often lead to problems and pain, after the initial pleasure.  His mind and will were so strong and logical, that he was able to act upon his conscious observations and conclusions.  Very few people are able to control themselves and exert such strong self-discipline.  One might say that he had an undivided will.  There seems to be no indication of one part of him warring against another part.  When Socrates ‘made up his mind’, he made up his entire mind.  Confucius (who died 9 years before Socrates was born) would have described him as a complete man.

“If a man remembers what is right at the sign of profit, is ready to lay down his life in the face of danger, and does not forget sentiments he has repeated all his life when he has been in straitened circumstances for a long time, he may be said to be a complete man”    

Confucius, Analects, XIV.12


References:  (examples of Leaders & Wise Men ‘made’, not ‘born’)

  • The Dalai Lama and Krishnamurti were chosen as young children to be raised as world leaders of religion.   Their upbringing molded and formed them, successfully!  (Alternatively you may choose to believe that Krishnamurti’s “aura” alerted the Theosophists to his destiny, and the Dalai Lama is truly a reincarnate spirit. Frankly “I don’t know”)
  • Intelligence and How to Get It: Why Schools and Cultures Count Book by Richard E. Nisbett

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A Humanistic Art of Thinking: Better

This post includes the October, 2012 response I submitted to the US “Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity” (IARPA) Request for Information (RFI),   IARPA-RFI-12-04 

The RFI was in support of “Strengthening Human Adaptive Reasoning and Problem Solving (SHARP)”

“A Humanistic Art of Thinking: Better”

Based on interviews I conducted with over 20 leaders of Modeling & Simulation, Systems Analysis, and Analytical Techniques for a number of multi-billion dollar Space and Defense Programs, it became clear to me, and to them, that there is a pressing need to re-evaluate and make explicit the common baseline of definitions, assumptions, methodologies & models, and analytical techniques for problem-solving.   This was true even for those very highly qualified upper level managers and subject matter experts (SME’s).

How people think is a very personal, often sensitive topic usually jealously guarded and shrouded in mystery, even to the individuals themselves. Nonetheless, there is a teachable Art of Thinking, as attested to by many books and essays throughout history. What distinguishes a great mind is beliefs, images, passions, attitudes, and habits of thought, with the willingness to consciously choose techniques that work, setting aside those that don’t, even if it forces them out of their “comfort zone”.

“The difference in the success of men, is the difference in their methods.”  — Ernest Dimnet in “The Art of Thinking”

Our suggestions are pragmatic, psychological, and pedagogical rather than scientific and technical. In defining what we suggest as the meta-system of interest, we consider the relationship of what’s often described as “hardware”, “software”, and “wetware” (the latter being the physical brain), plus the “Database” of relevant models, facts, relationships, tricks and techniques.  By “software” we include the programming within the conscious and unconscious mind. We also include in the meta-system the mentor, guide, or instructor who conveys (and ‘models’) that body of knowledge and practice in direct interaction with the students, possibly in a supportive community of learners.

We all have access to thousands of years of human experience, research, and analysis regarding how to think well.  Our premise is that although much of that is well-known to those of an academic, philosophical, or intellectual bent, it isn’t necessarily widely disseminated in usable, pragmatic form among “thinking-practitioners”.  The admonition that “when all else fails, read the manual” seems appropriate here.  The “low hanging fruit” in strengthening human problem solving is not (only) to focus on increasing potential raw intelligence (wetware), but in identifying the useful “manuals” for human reasoning, combining useful parts into a course syllabus and organized content, and with an appropriate ‘guide/mentor/instructor’ conveying that material in what’s as much a “training” as an “education” course.  In such a course, the students would have the opportunity to “model” the teacher’s thought-attitudes, methods, and processes. We suggest that the high-leverage, near-term achievable approach is to improve the brain’s “software” using a very humanistic, inter-personal classroom experience.

“The mind is a wonderful servant, but a terrible master”  — Goethe

Observation:  There is too much reliance on their high-intelligence among problem-solvers, and too much trying to prove how smart they are, rather than what we should be doing, which is trying to prove how well we deal with our own intellectual and emotional limitations. A basic premise here is that there are specific thinking and problem-solving knowledge and skills that can be learned, with a practical outcome of enhanced problem-solving in practice,  i.e. improving the “programming” and “software” of the mind, rather than increasing the power of the mind’s “wetware”.

“to be an inventor you need a good imagination, and a pile of junk”   — Thomas Edison  

(cf. our Mind Map of Problem-Solving Techniques and Methods)

The “guide/mentor/role-model/instructor/facilitator” must have the appropriate knowledge, personality, and sensitivity. This includes background knowledge of such topics as Meyers-Briggs Personality profiles, research into ‘styles of thinking’, and possibly possessing a very right-brain, humanistic approach to teaching . We suggest designing a course that includes much of the material in a number of “Art of Thinking” books, including Edward de Bono’s books, Socrates and Lao Tzu’s perspectives, and many others’.

Harrison and Bramson, in their Art of Thinking book, report that the ‘synthesist’ (dialectic) is the most rare style of thinking in the US.  Perhaps Western Culture, especially US culture, would benefit from emphasis on teaching dialectic/synthesis-styles of thinking as part of improved whole-brain thinking skill development. This is particularly relevant with the increasing importance of Asian Nations, whose cultural background arguably gives them a more right-brain, synthesist style of thinking.  (cf. the two Nisbett books referenced below)

The ability to hold two opposing ideas in the mind and suspend them there without becoming confused, is the mark of a mature intelligence”

F. Scott Fitzgerald

To develop “habits of thinking” it’s not sufficient to just know this material intellectually or academically. The thinker must “own the process”, have a firm commitment to it. Be willing to get out of their comfort zone*, ‘slow down’, avoid premature closure, value the ‘process’ as much as the ‘solution’, try to NOT be the quickest, and consciously look for how to apply a large and diverse set of potential methods and tools, e.g. look for the Yin & Yang of each new situation.

“Many of the tools of thinking are simply attention-directing tools.”  — de Bono “Teach Your Child to Think

* “If you’re not out of your comfort zone you may be learning, but you’re not growing”  — ebr


1. “The Art of Thinking”

2. “Naval Operations Analysis” 3rd Edition (includes my materials on Measures of Effectiveness)

3. “Notes on Measures of Effectiveness” by E. Rockower, 1985.

4. “The Art of Doing Science and Engineering: Learning to Learn” by Richard W. Hamming, Gordon and Breach 1997

5. “Six Thinking Hats”  2nd Edition by Edward de Bono, Back Bay Books, 1999

6. “Teach your child How to Think”  by Edward de Bono, Penguin Books 1994

7. “Systems Thinking. Applied. A Primer” by Robert Edson, 2008;

8. “The memorable Thoughts of Socrates” by Xenophon

9. “Solitude: A Return to the Self” by Anthony Storr, Ballantine Books; 3rd edition (May 6, 1989)

10. “It’s not that I’m so smart, it’s just that I stay with problems longer”. – Albert Einstein

11. The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently…and Why by Richard Nisbett

12. Intelligence and How to Get It: Why Schools and Cultures Count by Richard Nisbett

13. A “Mind Map” for An Art of Thinking, Better (cf. “a bag of tricks” for problem-solving)



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